In recent history, these agreements have been signed within the framework of two EU policies: the Stabilisation and Association Process (SAp) and the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). The first states to sign such an agreement were Greece (1961) [2] and Turkey (1963). [3] Association agreements are comprehensive framework agreements between the EU (or its predecessors) and its member states, as well as an external state that regulates their bilateral relations. The provision of an association agreement was inserted into the Treaty of Rome, which created the European Economic Community, to enable the Community`s cooperation with the United Kingdom, which had withdrawn from the treaty negotiations at the Messina Conference in 1955. According to the European External Action Service, an agreement to be classified as AA must meet several criteria:[1] In addition to these two policies, other states and trading blocs, including Chile and South Africa, have signed free trade agreements. Trade agreements between the EU and other countries or free trade zones have different implications for national economies. The agricultural industry is most affected when regional farms face competition from large producers who have access to markets in the event of lower tariffs. In major agreements such as the AA with Mercosur, European countries are significantly opposed to cheaper imports of meat and other products. [136] However, for the automotive and export manufacturing industries, which generally include larger global groups, significant increases in volume are evident for more industrialized members of trade. [137] An Association Agreement of the European Union (short for Association Agreement or AA) is a treaty between the European Union (EU), its Member States and a third country, which establishes a framework for cooperation between them. Among the areas that often fall under these agreements is the development of political, commercial, social, cultural and security relations. The legal basis for the conclusion of association agreements is provided by Article 217 of the Treaty ON THE EUROPEAN Union (Article 310 and 238 TEC).

7. In many cases, the Association Agreement replaces a cooperation agreement and thus strengthens relations between partners. 2. the intention to establish close economic and political cooperation (more than mere cooperation); 3. the creation of administrative bodies responsible for the management of cooperation, responsible for making decisions involving the contracting parties; 4. Offering the most favoured treatments in the nation; 5) the creation of a special relationship between the EC and its partner; 6. Since 1995, the clause on respect for human rights and democratic principles has been systematically introduced and is an essential element of the agreement; The environmental effects for countries exporting agricultural products from wetlands or other environmental regions, for example Brazil, have been increasingly documented by environmental groups that oppose EU trade agreements. [138] In addition, other industries with significant environmental impacts, such as mining, are developing in areas with low regulatory burdens, such as South America and Asia. Inter-professional organisations have argued that increasing economic performance in these sectors will only strengthen standards in participating countries and that EU trade agreements should go hand in hand with efforts to harmonize environmental legislation. [139] Mediterranean countries (Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Palestinian Authority, Syria, Tunisia) and Eastern European countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine, but without Russia, which insists on the creation of four EU-Russia common spaces) fall under the ENP.