While THE GATT was a set of rules agreed upon by nations, the WTO is an intergovernmental organization with its own headquarters and staff, whose scope covers both traded goods and trade in the service sector and intellectual property rights. Although used for multilateral agreements, multilateral agreements have led to selective exchanges and fragmentation among members in several rounds of negotiations (particularly the Tokyo Round). WTO agreements are generally a multilateral mechanism for the settlement of GATT agreements. [24] The General Agreement on Trade in Services was created to extend the multilateral trading system to the services sector, just as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) provided for such a system for trade in goods. The agreement came into force in January 1995. The WIPO secretariat provides technical assistance in the implementation of IP agreements, dispute resolution and training services and advice. It also has a number of permanent experts from intergovernmental committees who examine specific intellectual property issues and recommend possible options for action to address these issues. Both the WTO and WIPO secretariats are an essential part of meeting the obligation on industrialized countries, under the TRIPS ON agreement, to provide technical and technical assistance to developing countries to implement IP agreements. [41] In December 2010, the Anti-Counterfeiting Agreement (ACAC) was described as „the largest intellectual property agreement in more than a decade.“ ACTA is the most ambitious TRIPS Plus law to date. ACTA has been signed by the United States, Canada, 22 European countries, including Great Britain and France, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, Singapore and Switzerland. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that governs international trade. The WTO was officially opened on 1 January 1995, as part of the 123-nation Marrakesh Agreement signed on 15 April 1994, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which began in 1948.

[2] The WTO regulates trade between participating countries through the establishment of a framework for the negotiation of trade agreements and a dispute settlement procedure to enforce WTO agreements by participants signed by representatives of member governments[3]:fol.9-10 and ratified by their parliaments. [4] Most of the issues the WTO focuses on come from previous trade negotiations, including the Uruguay Round (1986-1994). The Uruguay Round Agricultural Agreement remains the most important agreement in the history of trade negotiations for the liberalisation of agricultural trade. The aim of the agreement was to improve market access for agricultural products, reduce national aid to agriculture in the form of price-distorting subsidies and quotas, eliminate agricultural export subsidies over time and harmonize health and plant health measures among Member States as much as possible. In June 2012[Update], the future of the Doha Round remained uncertain: the work programme lists 21 themes in which the initial deadline of 1 January 2005 has not been set and the cycle remains incomplete. [47] The conflict between free trade in industrial products and services, but the maintenance of protectionism in agricultural subsidies to domestic agricultural sectors (demanded by industrialized countries) and the justification for fair trade in agricultural products (demanded by developing countries) remain the main obstacles. This impasse has made it impossible to organise new WTO negotiations beyond the Doha Development Round.